Wheat Protein Textured
Wheat (Triticum spp.)is a grass that is cultivated worldwide. Globally, it is the most important human food grain and ranks second in total production as a cereal crop behind maize; the third being rice.Wheat grain is a staple food used to make flour for leavened, flat and steamed breads; cookies, cakes, pasta, noodles and couscous;and for fermentation to make beer, alcohol, vodka] or biofuel. Wheat is planted to a limited extent as a forage crop for livestock and the straw can be used as fodder for livestock or as a construction material for roofing thatch. Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wheat Severe allergic reactions (e.g. anaphylactic reaction) occur when the body's immune system strongly reacts to a particular allergen protein or irritant. These reactions may be caused by food, insect stings and medications. the nine priority food allergens are peanuts, tree nuts, sesame seeds, milk, eggs, fish (including crustaceans and shellfish), soy, wheat and sulphites. Wheat quality begins with its constituent parts. The hard spring wheat kernel, on average, contains about 68% starch, 18% protein, 2% fats, 2% ash, and 2% cellulose. The proportion of these components varies. The starch, protein, and fats comprise the nutritive components. Cellulose is not digested so its nutritive value is zero Six Basic Classes The many varieties of winter and spring wheat are grouped into six official classes. The class a variety fits into is determined by its hardness, the color of its kernels and by its planting time. Each class of wheat has its own relatively uniform characteristics related to milling, baking or other food use. Hard Red Winter (HRW) is an important bread wheat which accounts for almost forty percent of the U.S. wheat crop and wheat exports. This fall-seeded wheat is produced in the Great Plains, which extend from the Mississippi River west to the Rocky Mountains and from the Dakotas and Montana south to Texas. Significant quantities are also produced in California. HRW has a moderately high protein content, usually averaging 11-12%, and good milling and baking characteristics. There are no subclasses of this class. Hard Red Spring (HRS), another important bread wheat, maintains the highest protein content, usually 13-14%, in addition to good milling and baking characteristics. This spring-seeded wheat is primarily grown in the north central United States--North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota and Montana. HRS comprises just over twenty percent of U.S. wheat exports. Subclasses based upon the dark, hard and vitreous kernel content (DHV), include dark northern spring, northern spring and red spring. Hard White (HW) is the newest class of wheat to be grown in the United States. It is used for noodles, yeast breads and flat breads and is grown in California, Idaho, Kansas and Montana. There are no subclasses. Currently, HW is used primarily in domestic markets with limited quantities being exported. It is anticipated that exports of this class will increase. Soft White (SW) is a preferred wheat for flat breads, cakes, pastries, crackers and noodles and is grown primarily in the Pacific Northwest. Soft white is a low protein wheat, usually about 10%. SW represents just over twenty percent of total U.S. exports, primarily to Asia and the Middle East. Subclasses are soft white, white club and western white. Soft Red Winter (SRW) is grown in the eastern third of the United States. SRW is a high yielding wheat, but relatively low in protein, usually about 10%. SRW is used for cakes, pastries, flat breads, crackers and snack foods. This fall-seeded wheat comprises about fourteen percent of U.S. wheat exports. There are no subclasses of this class. Durum, the hardest of all U.S. wheats, provides semolina for spaghetti, macaroni and other pasta products. This spring-seeded wheat is grown primarily in the same northern areas as hard red spring, while smaller winter-sown quantities are grown in Arizona and California. Durum comprises nearly five percent of total U.S. wheat exports. Subclasses are hard amber durum, amber durum and durum.