Vinegar is an acidic liquid processed from the fermentation of ethanol in a process that yields its key ingredient, acetic acid (also called ethanoic acid). It also may come in a diluted form. The acetic acid concentration typically ranges from 4 to 8 percent by volume for table vinegar (typically 5%) and higher concentrations for pickling (up to 18%). Natural vinegars also contain small amounts of tartaric acid, citric acid, and other acids. Vinegar has been used since ancient times and is an important element in European, Asian, and other cuisines. The word "vinegar" derives from the Old French vin aigre, meaning "sour wine". Vinegar is commonly used in food preparation, particularly in pickling processes, vinaigrettes, and other salad dressings. It is an ingredient in sauces such as mustard, ketchup, and mayonnaise. Vinegar is sometimes used while making chutneys. It is often used as a condiment. Marinades often contain vinegar. Condiment for fish and chips - People commonly use malt vinegar (or non-brewed condiment) on chips. Flavoring for potato chips - many American, Canadian and British manufacturers of packaged potato chips and crisps feature a variety flavored with vinegar and salt. Vinegar pie - is a North American dessert made with a vinegar to one's taste. Pickling - any vinegar can be used to pickle foods. Cider vinegar and sauces - cider vinegar usually is not suitable for use in delicate sauces. Substitute for fresh lemon juice - cider vinegar can usually be substituted for fresh lemon juice in recipes and obtain a pleasing effect although it lacks the vitamin C. Saucing roast lamb - pouring cider vinegar over the meat when roasting lamb, especially when combined with honey or when sliced onions have been added to the roasting pan, produces a sauce. Sweetened vinegar is used in the dish of Pork Knuckles and Ginger Stew which is made among Chinese people of Cantonese backgrounds to celebrate the arrival of a new child. Sushi rice - Japanese use rice vinegar as an essential ingredient for sushi rice. Red vinegar - Sometimes used in Chinese soups Flavoring - used in the Southern U.S. to flavor collard greens, green beans, or cabbage to taste. A concentrate is a form of substance which has had the majority of its base component (in the case of a liquid: the solvent) removed. Typically this will be the removal of water from a solution or suspension such as the removal of water from fruit juice. One benefit of producing a concentrate is that of a reduction in weight and volume for transportation as the concentrate can be re-constituted at the time of usage by the addition of the solvent.