Thymol (also known as 2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol), (IPMP) is a monoterpene phenol derivative of cymene, C10H14OH, isomeric with carvacrol, found in oil of thyme, and extracted as a white crystalline substance of a pleasant aromatic odor and strong antiseptic properties. Thymol is only slightly soluble in water, but it is extremely soluble in alcohols and other organic solvents. It is also called "Isopropyl-m-cresol" and "hydroxy cymene Thymol has been used to successfully control varroa mites and prevent fermentation and the growth of mould in bee colonies.. A minor use is in bookbinding: before rebinding, books with mold damage can be sealed in bags with thymol crystals to kill fungal spores. Thymol has been used in alcohol solutions and in dusting powders for the treatment of tinea (ringworm) infections. It is also used as a preservative in halothane, an anaesthetic, and as an antiseptic in mouthwash. The Bee Balms (Monarda fistulosa and Monarda didyma) are natural sources of thymol, a primary active ingredient in modern commercial mouthwash formulas. The Blackfeet Native Americans recognized this plant's strong antiseptic action, and used poultices of the plant for skin infections and minor wounds. A tea made from the plant was also used to treat mouth and throat infections caused by dental caries and gingivitis. Recent medical research on rats concludes that "Thyme extract had relaxing effects on organs possessing ÃŸ2-receptors (uterus and trachea)." In a 1994 report released by five top cigarette companies, thymol was listed as one of 599 additives to cigarettes. It is said to be added to improve the flavor of cigarettes, but as mentioned above, it relaxes the trachea. There is also evidence supporting the belief that thymol when applied two to three times daily, can eliminate certain kinds of fungal infections that affect finger nails and toe nails in humans. Regular application to the affected nail over periods approximating three months has been shown to eliminate the affliction by effectively preventing further progress; by simply cutting the nail as one normally would, all infected material is eventually eliminated. More recently, San Francisco based start-up CleanWell Company has developed a series of biomimetic antiseptic and disinfecting products based upon Thyme Oil.