Soy Protein Product
Soy protein is generally regarded as the storage protein held in discrete particles called protein bodies, which are estimated to contain at least 60â€“70% of the total soybean protein. Upon germination of the soybean, the protein will be digested, and the released amino acids will be transported to locations of seedling growth. Legume proteins, such as soy and pulses, belong to the globulin family of seed storage proteins called leguminins (11S) and vicilins (7S), or in the case of soybeans, glycinin and beta-conglycinin. Grains contain a third type of storage protein called gluten or "prolamines." Soybeans also contain biologically active or metabolic proteins such as enzymes, trypsin inhibitors, hemagglutinins, and cysteine proteases very similar to papain. The soy cotyledon storage proteins, important for human nutrition, can be extracted most efficiently by water, water plus dilute alkali (pH 7â€“9), or aqueous solutions of sodium chloride (0.5â€“2 M) from dehulled and defatted soybeans that have undergone only a minimal heat treatment so that the protein is close to being native or undenatured. Soybeans are processed into three kinds of modern protein-rich products: soy flour, soy concentrate, and soy isolate.