ingredient information
Sour Base
Sourness is the taste that detects acidity. The mechanism for detecting sour taste is similar to that which detects salt taste. Hydrogen ion channels detect the concentration of hydronium ions (H3O+ ions) that are formed from acids and water. Hydrogen ions are capable of permeating the amiloride-sensitive channels, but this is not the only mechanism involved in detecting the quality of sourness. Other channels have also been proposed in the literature. Hydrogen ions also inhibit the potassium channel, which normally functions to hyperpolarize the cell. By a combination of direct intake of hydrogen ions (which itself depolarizes the cell) and the inhibition of the hyperpolarizing channel, sourness causes the taste cell to fire in this specific manner. In addition, it has also been suggested that weak acids, such as CO2 which is converted into the bicarbonate ion HCO3– by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, to mediate weak acid transport.[clarification needed] The most common food group that contains naturally sour foods is the fruit, with examples such as the lemon, grape, orange, and sometimes the melon. Wine also usually has a sour tinge to its flavor. If not kept correctly, milk can spoil and contain a sour taste. Sour candy is especially popular in North America including Cry babies, Warheads , lemon drops, and Shock Tarts.