The antibacterial effects of water extracts of Scutellariae Radix (a dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis GEORGI) and its major flavonoid components, Baicalin and Baicalein, on Salmonella typhimurium, a representative enteric pathogen, were studied. Through a Kirby-Bauer disc analysis, the growth-inhibition activity of Scutellariae Radix against S. typhimurium was found to be compatible with commercial antibiotics, such as ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin. In contrast, the growth of a nonpathogenic E. coli strain was unaffected by Scutellariae Radix. To examine the effect of polyphosphate kinase (ppk), a putative virulence factor, on the antibacterial activity of Scutellariae Radix, the growth profile of a ppk mutant of S. typhimurium was investigated in a tryptic soy broth containing different concentrations of water extracts of Scutellariae Radix. The ppk mutant was able to grow in 6 mg/ml of water extracts of Scutellariae Radix, whereas the wild-type could not, implying that the inactivation of ppk made S. typhimurium more resistant to the antibacterial activity of Scutellariae Radix. No enhanced resistance was observed in a ppk mutant of S. typhimurium complemented with a ppk expression vector. The attenuation of the virulence by ppk inactivation was also observed in a virulence assay using BALB/c mice. Neither Baicalin nor Baicalein exhibited any growth-inhibition activity against S. typhimurium. The water extracts of Scutellariae Radix stimulated the transcription of ppk, especially in the early growth-stage of S. typhimurium.