ingredient information
Pumpkin Dried
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A pumpkin is a squash fruit, usually orange in colour when ripe. Pumpkins grow as a gourd from a trailing vine of the genus Cucurbita Cucurbitaceae. Cultivated in North America, continental Europe, India and some other countries, as well as in English cottage gardens, Cucurbita varieties include Curcurbita pepo, Cucurbita maxima, Cucurbita mixta, or Cucurbita moschata — all plants native to the Western hemisphere. The pumpkin varies greatly in form, being sometimes nearly globular, but more generally oblong or ovoid in shape. The rind is smooth and variable in colour. The larger kinds acquire a weight of 40 to 80 lb (18 to 36 kg) but smaller varieties are in vogue for garden culture. Pumpkins are a popular food, with their insides commonly eaten cooked and served in dishes such as pumpkin pie; the seeds can be roasted as a snack. Pumpkins are traditionally used to carve Jack-o'-lanterns for use as part of Halloween celebrations. Botanically it is a fruit, referring to a certain plant part which grows from a flower. However it is widely regarded as a vegetable in culinary terms, referring to how it is eaten. Butternut squash is called "butternut pumpkin" in Australia, and "neck pumpkin" in parts of Pennsylvania where it is commonly regarded as a pumpkin and used in similar ways to other pumpkin. Drying of Bioproducts is a mass transfer process resulting in the removal of water moisture or moisture from another solvent, by evaporation from a solid, semi-solid or liquid (hereafter product) to end in a solid state. To achieve this, there must be a source of heat, and a sink of the vapor thus produced. In bioproducts (food, grains, vaccines), and pharmaceuticals, the solvent to be removed is almost invariably water In the most case, a gas stream, e.g., air, applies the heat by convection and carries away the vapor as humidity. Other possibilities are vacuum drying, where heat is supplied by contact conduction or radiation (or microwaves) while the produced vapor is removed by the vacuum system. Another indirect technique is drum drying, where a heated surface is used to provide the energy and aspirators draw the vapor outside the drum. Freeze drying or lyophilization is a drying method where the solvent is frozen prior to drying and is then sublimed, i.e., passed to the gas phase directly from the solid phase, below the melting point of the solvent. Freeze drying is often carried out under high vacuum to allow drying to proceed at a reasonable rate. This process avoids collapse of the solid structure, leading to a low density, highly porous product, able to regain the solvent quickly. In biological materials or foods, freeze drying is regarded as one of the best if not the best method to retain the initial properties. It was first used industrially to produce dehydrated vaccines, and to bring dehydrated blood to assist war casualties. Now freeze drying is increasingly used to preserve some foods, especially for backpackers going to remote areas. The method may keep protein quality intact, the same as the activity of vitamins and bioactive compounds. In turn, the mechanical extraction of the solvent, e.g., water, by centrifugation, is not considered "drying". The ubiquitous term dehydration may mean drying of water-containing products as foods, but its meaning is more vague, as it is also applied for water removal by osmotic drive from a salt or sugar solution. In medicine, dehydration is the situation by which a person loses water by respiration, sweating and evaporation and does not incorporate, for whatever reason, the "make-up" water required to keep the normal physiological behavior of the body. There is very extensive technical literature on this subject, including several major textbooks and a dedicated scientific journal (Drying Technology