Emulsifier Development As cake baking has become a more precise industrial activity, Baking emulsifiers have become a very important class of ingredients in the manufacture of cakes and other sweet goods. In the early days bakers used eggs and lecithin as providers of natural emulsifiers mainly due to the presence of phospholipids that have surface-active properties. In the early 1920's chemical emulsifiers made their first appearance in the form of mono-diglycerides. A mono-diglyceride is an ester. An ester is formed when an acid combines with an alcohol. Specifically a mono-diglyceride is an ester which is formed when the fatty acid is a triglyceride fat which combines with a polyvalent alcohol - glycerol. Mono- diglycerides, the first commercially available emulsifiers used in baking, contained about 40-50% of the monoglycerides- the component that is functional as an emulsifier. Subsequently distilled mono-glycerides were developed since such emulsifiers contained 90-95% of the functional monoglyceride. The introduction of monoglycerides helped the cake baker increase the proportion of both fat and sugar in the batter and this resulted in rich, high ratio cakes with superior keeping qualities.