Manioc Starch Modified
Cassava, yuca, or manioc (Manihot esculenta) is a woody shrub of the Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) native to South America that is extensively cultivated as an annual crop in tropical and subtropical regions for its edible starchy tuberous root, a major source of carbohydrates. Cassava is the third largest source of carbohydrates for human food in the world, with Africa its largest center of production. The flour made of the roots is called tapioca.  Cassava is classified as "sweet" or "bitter" depending on the level of toxic cyanogenic glucosides. Improper preparation of bitter cassava leads to a large number of cases of a disease called konzo. Nevertheless, farmers often prefer the bitter varieties because they deter pests, animals, and thieves.. The name "cassava" is sometimes spelled cassaba or cassada. . In English language publications, the plant may be occasionally called by local names, such as yuca (most of Spanish-speaking Americas), mandioca, aipim, or macaxera (Brazil), kassav (Haiti), mandiÂ´o (Paraguay), akpu or ugburu (Nigeria),bankye(Twi-Speaking Ghana), mogo or mihogo (Swahili-speaking Africa), kappa (India), maniok (Sri Lanka), singkong (Indonesia), ubi kayu (Malaysia), kamoteng kahoy or balanghoy (Philippines), mushu (China), c? s?n or khoai mÃ¬ (Vietnam), manioke or manioca (Polynesia) . Starch or amylum is a polysaccharide carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined together by glycosidic bonds. Starch is produced by all green plants as an energy store and is a major food source for humans. Pure starch is a white, tasteless and odorless powder that is insoluble in cold water or alcohol. It consists of two types of molecules: the linear and helical amylose and the branched amylopectin. Depending on the plant, starch generally contains 20 to 25% amylose and 75 to 80% amylopectin. Glycogen, the glucose store of animals, is a more branched version of amylopectin. Starch can be used as a thickening, stiffening or gluing agent when dissolved in warm water, giving wheatpaste.