Lactobacillus casei is a species of genus Lactobacillus found in the human intestine and mouth. As a lactic acid producer, it has been found to assist in the propagation of desirable bacteria. This particular species of lactobacillus is documented to have a wide pH and temperature range, and complements the growth of L. acidophilus, a producer of the enzyme amylase (a carbohydrate-digesting enzyme). It is known to improve digestion and reduce lactose intolerance and constipation. The most common application of L. casei is industrial, specifically for dairy production. However, a team of scientists from SimÃ³n BolÃvar University in Caracas, Venezuela found that by using Lactobacillus casei bacteria in the natural fermentation of beans, the beans contained lower amounts of the compounds causing flatulence upon digestion. Lactobacillus casei is typically the dominant species of non starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) present in ripening Cheddar cheese and recently, the complete genome sequence of L. casei ATCC 334 has become available. L. casei is also the dominant species in naturally fermented Sicilian green olives. A commercial beverage containing L. casei strain Shirota has been shown to inhibit the growth of H. pylori in a test tube. But when the same beverage was consumed by humans in a small trial, H. pylori colonization decreased only slightly and the trend was not statistically significant. Some L. casei are considered as probiotic and may be effective in alleviation of gastrointestinal pathogenic bacterial diseases. According to World Health Organization, those properties have to be demonstrated on each specific strainâ€”including human clinical studiesâ€”to be valid. Among the best documented probiotic L.casei, L. casei DN-114001 and L. casei Shirota have been extensively studied and are widely available as functional foods (see Actimel, Yakult). In the past few years, there are many studies in the decolorization of azo dyes by lactic acid bacteria such as L. casei TISTR 1500, L. paracasei, Oenococcus oeni. With the azoreductase activity, mono-, di- azo bonds are degraded completely, and generate other aromatic compounds as intermediates.