protein gluten, which is commonly found in many types of grains (specifically wheat, barley, oats and rye). Gluten is an amorphous ergastic protein found combined with starch in the endosperm of most cereals. It constitutes about 80% of the proteins contained in wheat and is composed of the proteins gliadine and glutenine. Gluten is responsible for the elasticity of kneaded dough which allows it to be leavened, as well as the "chewiness" of baked products like bagels. Fabrication Gluten can be extracted from the flour of wheat and other grains by washing the starch out. To this purpose, a simple dough of flour and water is rinsed with plain water and kneaded until the rinsing water remains clear and free from starch and bran. For chemical, non-food purposes, a saline solution provides better results. The remaining lump of gluten should have a stringy, sticky texture reminding of chewing gum. Usage Cooked gluten becomes firm to the bite and soaks up a certain amount of the surrounding broth and its taste. It is therefore commonly used in Chinese Buddhist and vegetarian cuisine, where it is also called seitan. Some consider it a convincing imitation meat, when the broth is flavored accordingly. In the process of baking, gluten is responsible for keeping the fermentation gases in the dough, allowing it to rise. After baking, the coagulatedd gluten ensures that the final product keeps its shape.