Flour Fava Bean
Vicia faba, the Broad Bean, Fava Bean, Faba Bean, Field Bean, Bell Bean or Tic Bean is a species of bean (Fabaceae) native to north Africa and southwest Asia, and extensively cultivated elsewhere. A variety is provisionally recognized: Vicia faba var. equina Pers. â€“ Horse Bean Although usually classified in the same genus Vicia as the vetches, some botanists treat it in a separate monotypic genus Faba. Fabaceae or Leguminosae is a large and economically important family of flowering plants, which is commonly known as the legume family, pea family, bean family or pulse family. The name 'Fabaceae' comes from the defunct genus Faba, now included into Vicia. Leguminosae is an older name still considered valid, and refers to the typical fruit of these plants, which are called legumes. Fabaceae is the third largest family of flowering plants, behind Orchidaceae and Asteraceae, with 730 genera and over 19,400 species, according to the Royal Botanical Gardens. The largest genera are Astragalus with more than 2,000 species, Acacia with more than 900 species, and Indigofera with around 700 species. Other large genera include Crotalaria with 600 species and Mimosa with 500 species. The species of this family are found throughout the world, growing in many different environments and climates. A number are important agricultural plants, including: Glycine max (soybean), Phaseolus (beans), Pisum sativum (pea), Cicer arietinum (chickpeas), Medicago sativa (alfalfa), and Arachis hypogaea (peanut), which are among the best known members of Fabaceae. A number of species are also weedy pests in different parts of the world, including: Cytisus scoparius (broom) and Pueraria lobata (kudzu), and a number of Lupinus species. Flour is a powder made of cereal grains or roots. It is the main ingredient of bread, which is a staple food for many civilizations, making the availability of adequate supplies of flour a major economic and political issue at various times throughout history. Wheat flour is one of the most important foods in European and North American culture, and is the defining ingredient in most European styles of breads and pastries. Maize flour has been important in Mesoamerican cuisine since ancient times, and remains a staple in much of Latin American cuisine. Flour contains a high proportion of starches, which are complex carbohydrates also known as polysaccharides. Leavening agents are used with some flours, especially those with significant gluten content, to produce lighter and softer baked products by embedding small gas bubbles. The production of flour has also historically driven technological development, as attempts to make gristmills more productive and less labor-intensive led to the watermill and windmill, terms now applied more broadly to uses of water and wind power for purposes other than milling.