Dumplings, as defined in a standard English dictionary, fall in two main categories: these are either "piece[s] of dough, sometimes filled, that are cooked in liquid such as water or soup" or alternatively "sweetened dough wrapped around fruit, such as an apple, baked and served as a dessert." More generally, dumplings may be any of a wide variety of dishes, both sweet and savoury, that are not necessarily dough-based. There are varieties of dumplings made from bread, potatoes, or matzoh meal, with or without filling. Dumplings are made from balls of dough, crumbled bread, or mashed potatoes. Alternatively, they may be fashioned as small parcels of food encased in dough, batter, pastry, or even edible leaves. Once the filling is put inside the ball or is encased in a pocket, dumplings usually undergo further treatment by boiling, steaming, simmering, frying, or baking. Before the discovery of the New World dumplings did not contain potatoes, but instead were typically made with meat, fish, or sweets.