ingredient information
D Ribose
Ribose, primarily occurring as D-ribose, is an organic compound that occurs widely in nature. It is an aldopentose, that is a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms that, in its acyclic form, has an aldehyde functional group at one end. Typically, this species exists in the cyclic form, as depicted in the upper right. It was first reported in 1891 by Emil Fischer. It comprises the backbone of RNA, a biopolymer that is the basis of genetic transcription. It is related to deoxyribose, as found in DNA, by the removal of one hydroxy group. Once phosphorylated, ribose can become a subunit of ATP, NADH, and several other compounds that are critical to metabolism. D-ribose is often marketed as a supplement for bodybuilders with a common recommended daily dose being 5 g, even though most studies have found no evidence that it is helpful for endurance, recovery or increasing muscle mass in healthy people.[citation needed] D-ribose has also been used to reduce fatigue in fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. A 2006 pilot study concluded that D-ribose (5 g three times a day) was effective in the treatment of FM and CFS. [2] Although this study lacked any control group, the authors reported that 66% of the 41 participants found the supplement helpful and it produced improvement in all the areas tested: energy, sleep, mental clarity, pain intensity, and well-being. Without further study, it is unclear if this is a substantial effect, or a placebo effect. In addition, there is no transporter or uptake mechanism for ribose in the intestine. The energy yield comes from two- and three-carbon compounds created when ribose is fermented by intestinal bacteria