ingredient information
Corn Flour Yellow Enriched
Cornstarch, or cornflour, is the starch of the corn (maize) grain. It is also grown from the endosperm of the corn kernel. It has a distinctive appearance and feel when mixed raw with water or milk, giving easily to gentle pressure but resisting sudden pressure (see Dilatant and Non-Newtonian fluid). It is usually included as an anti-caking agent in powdered sugar (10X or confectioner's sugar). For this reason, recipes calling for powdered sugar often call for at least light cooking to remove the raw cornstarch taste. Cornstarch or cornflour is also used as a thickening agent in soups and liquids. As the starch is heated by the liquid, the molecule chains unravel, allowing them to collide with other starch chains to form a mesh - thus slowing the movement of water molecules. This results in thickening of the liquid, be it soup, stock or other culinary liquids. Enriched flour is flour with specific nutrients returned to it that have been lost while it was prepared. According to the FDA, a pound of enriched flour must have the following quantities of nutrients to qualify: 2.9 milligrams of thiamin, 1.8 milligrams of riboflavin, 24 milligrams of niacin, 0.7 milligrams of folic acid, and 20 milligrams of iron. The first four nutrients are B vitamins. Calcium also may be added at a minimum of 960 milligrams per pound. Enriching is necessary because the processing used to make white flour destroys some of these nutrients that originally were present in the whole grain. White flour became adopted in many cultures because it was recognized as being healthier than dark flours during the late Middle Ages.[citation needed] The unknown factor for its benefit at that time was that mold and fungus in the grains, which led to several diseases, were eliminated in the processing that resulted in white flour. In the 1920s, Benjamin R. Jacobs began to document the loss of essential nutrients, however, through this processing of cereals and grains and to demonstrate a method by which the end products could be enriched with the lost nutrients. These nutrients promote good health and help to prevent some diseases. It is because of these benefits that enriched flour is so prevalent today,[original research?] despite there being no Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations requiring their use. The international effort to start enriching flour was launched during the 1940s as a means to improve the health of the wartime populations of the British and United States while food was being rationed and alternative sources of the nutrients were scarce. The decision to choose flour for enrichment was based on its commonality in the diets of those wartime populations, ranging from the rich to the poor. A major factor in the switch to enriched flour in the United States was the U.S. Army's restriction in 1942, that it would purchase only enriched flour. The reason that enriched flour is "enriched" as opposed to "fortified" is because the nutrients are added for the purpose of replacing those lost in the flour processing, not introducing nutrients that were never in the food originally. For this reason, the consumption of enriched flour is far more unhealthy than eating that of whole grain flour. During the process of enriching, only some of the nutrients can be added back into the flour. Also, the body can typically digest natural nutrients far more effectively than man-made counterparts. U.S. Army studies[citation needed] have shown that vitamin enriched flour has added 4 inches to the height of the average American. An identical effect has been noted in every nation which has adopted food enrichment.[citation needed] In Asian countries, rice is enriched instead