ingredient information
Cheese Dried
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Cheese is a solid food made from the curdled milk of cows, goats, sheep, or other mammals. The milk is curdled using some combination of rennet (or rennet substitutes) and acidification. Bacteria acidify the milk and play a role in defining the texture and flavor of most cheeses. Some cheeses also feature molds, either on the outer rind or throughout. There are hundreds of types of cheese. Different styles and flavors of cheese are the result of using different species of bacteria and molds, different levels of milk fat, variations in length of aging, differing processing treatments (cheddaring, pulling, brining, mold wash) and different breeds of cows, sheep, or other mammals. Other factors include animal diet and the addition of flavoring agents such as herbs, spices, or wood smoke. Whether or not the milk is pasteurized may also affect the flavor. For a few cheeses, the milk is curdled by adding acids such as vinegar or lemon juice. Most cheeses, however, are acidified to a lesser degree by bacteria, which turn milk sugars into lactic acid, followed by the addition of rennet to complete the curdling. Rennet is an enzyme traditionally obtained from the stomach lining of young cattle, but now also laboratory produced. Substitute "vegetable rennets" have been extracted from various species of the Cynara thistle family. In some societies, stored cheese is a hedge against famine and a good travel food. It is valuable for its portability, long life, and high content of fat, protein, calcium, and phosphorus. Cheese is lighter-weight, more compact, and has a longer shelf life than the milk from which it is made. Cheesemakers can place themselves near the center of a dairy region and benefit from fresher milk, lower milk prices, and lower shipping costs. Cheese's substantial storage life lets a cheesemaker sell when prices are high or money is needed. Some markets even pay more for "aged" cheeses, exactly the opposite case from conventional milk production. Cheeses are eaten raw or cooked, alone or with other ingredients. As they are heated, most cheeses melt and brown. Some cheeses melt smoothly, especially in the presence of acids or starch. Cheese fondue, with wine providing the acidity, is a good example of a smoothly-melted cheese dish. Other cheeses turn elastic and stringy when they melt, a quality that can be enjoyed in dishes like pizza and Welsh rarebit. Some cheeses melt unevenly, their fats separating as they heat, while a few acid-curdled cheeses, including halloumi, paneer and ricotta, do not melt at all and can become firmer when cooked. Drying of Bioproducts is a mass transfer process resulting in the removal of water moisture or moisture from another solvent, by evaporation from a solid, semi-solid or liquid (hereafter product) to end in a solid state. To achieve this, there must be a source of heat, and a sink of the vapor thus produced. In bioproducts (food, grains, vaccines), and pharmaceuticals, the solvent to be removed is almost invariably water In the most common case, a gas stream, e.g., air, applies the heat by convection and carries away the vapor as humidity. Other possibilities are vacuum drying, where heat is supplied by contact conduction or radiation (or microwaves) while the produced vapor is removed by the vacuum system. Another indirect technique is drum drying, where a heated surface is used to provide the energy and aspirators draw the vapor outside the drum. Freeze drying or lyophilization is a drying method where the solvent is frozen prior to drying and is then sublimed, i.e., passed to the gas phase directly from the solid phase, below the melting point of the solvent. Freeze drying is often carried out under high vacuum to allow drying to proceed at a reasonable rate. This process avoids collapse of the solid structure, leading to a low density, highly porous product, able to regain the solvent quickly. In biological materials or foods, freeze drying is regarded as one of the best if not the best method to retain the initial properties. It was first used industrially to produce dehydrated vaccines, and to bring dehydrated blood to assist war casualties. Now freeze drying is increasingly used to preserve some foods, especially for backpackers going to remote areas. The method may keep protein quality intact, the same as the activity of vitamins and bioactive compounds. In turn, the mechanical extraction of the solvent, e.g., water, by centrifugation, is not considered "drying". The ubiquitous term dehydration may mean drying of water-containing products as foods, but its meaning is more vague, as it is also applied for water removal by osmotic drive from a salt or sugar solution. In medicine, dehydration is the situation by which a person loses water by respiration, sweating and evaporation and does not incorporate, for whatever reason, the "make-up" water required to keep the normal physiological behavior of the body. There is very extensive technical literature on this subject, including several major textbooks and a dedicated scientific journal (Drying Technology