Beef Fatty Tissue Cooked Partially Defatted
Beef is the culinary name for meat from bovines, especially domestic cattle (cows). Beef is one of the principal meats used in the cuisine of Australia, Europe and America, and is also important in Africa, East Asia, and Southeast Asia. Beef is a taboo food in some cultures. Its consumption is forbidden by some sects of Hinduism, as bovines are revered. It is also discouraged among some Buddhists. Beef muscle meat can be cut into steak, roasts or short ribs. Some cuts are processed (corned beef or beef jerky), and trimmings, usually mixed with meat from older, leaner cattle, are ground, minced or used in sausages. The blood is used in some varieties of blood sausage. Other parts that are eaten include the oxtail, tongue, tripe from the reticulum or rumen, gland (particularly the pancreas and thymus) referred to as sweetbread, the heart, the brain (although forbidden where there is a danger of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, BSE), the liver, the kidneys, and the tender testicles of the bull (known in the US as "calf fries", "prairie oysters", or "Rocky Mountain oysters"). Some intestines are eaten as-is, but are used more often as natural sausage casings. The lungs and the udder are considered unfit for human consumption in the US. Beef bones are used for making beef stock. Beef from steers and heifers are equivalent, except for steers having slightly less fat and more muscle, all treatments being equal. Depending on economics, the number of heifers kept for breeding varies. Older animals are used for beef when they are past their reproductive prime. The meat from older cows and bulls is usually tougher, so it is frequently used for mince (UK)/ground beef (US). Cattle raised for beef may be allowed to roam free on grasslands, or may be confined at some stage in pens as part of a large feeding operation called a feedlot, where they are usually fed a ration of grain, protein, roughage and a vitamin/mineral preblend. The United States, Brazil, Japan and the People's Republic of China are the world's four largest consumers of beef. The world's largest exporters of beef are Australia, Brazil, Argentina and Canada. Beef production is also important to the economies of Uruguay, Nicaragua, Russia and Mexico.