known as a primal cut, which are groups of muscles from the same area of the carcass. Primal cuts are also called wholesale cuts, because they are usually sold to meat markets to be cut into smaller beef cuts for sale to the consumer. An example of a primal cut is the short loin. Smaller cuts of beef are taken from the primal cuts and are known as subprimal cuts. An example of a subprimal from the short loin is the tenderloin. The subprimal cuts of beef can yield still smaller cuts such as filet mignon steaks from the tenderloin. Many of the subprimal cuts of beef, and the smaller cuts obtained from them, are known as consumer cuts, retail cuts, or market ready cuts. Beef cuts may consist of a single muscle, such as the tenderloin, while others may be a cross section of several muscles. A Porterhouse steak, for example, is a cross section of parts of the top loin and tenderloin muscles. Many cross section cuts include some bone. Cuts of beef that are obtained from the center of the animal, such as the loin and rib area, are the most tender. This is because the muscles in the loin and rib areas are suspension muscles and do not move as much as the muscles in the front and rear portions of the animal, which are responsible for locomotion. The more a muscle is used, the less tender it is. Various cuts of beef may differ in name between different countries and even in different regions of the same country, so it can be confusing. For example, in the United States, the rear section of the carcass is known as the round, but in Canada, the same section is called the hip.